Orchid English Blog

What’s the difference between “earn” and “win”?

Posted on December 21, 2018

By Emily Stallard, Owner at Orchid English

What’s the difference between “earn” and “win”? We hear these words used in place of each other a lot, especially by the professionals learning English with us in London who have a Latin language background.

 

Win

How often do you win money? At the end of every month? If so, you must have been born under a lucky star, that is, you must be an extremely lucky person. I think the last time I won any money was four years ago on a scratchcard, and then I only won my own money back. Not much to write home about…

 

Winning is usually by chance as in the example of the lottery, or you can win a game or competition. What is your favourite game? I love playing tennis and the climate in London means you can usually play tennis all year round – it doesn’t get too hot in the summer or too cold in the winter. When I play with friends we never play to win, we don’t keep score.

 

This holiday season is a good one to play board games with family. My favourite board game is Scrabble, where you compete to make high-scoring words from randomly picked letters. In our family we are constantly bemused that our grandmother can still win despite her advancing years.

 

Earn

Earning money is getting money from your job. If you work hard at the right company you can of course also earn a promotion or pay rise. Earning is not by chance, it’s something you deserve through work. At this time of year lots of us feel that after a long stretch of hard work we have earned a relaxing break.

 

Note the overlap here: did you see Usain Bolt win gold in the Olympics? He trained so much that he really earned it.

 

Bonus English tip about money

While we’re on the subject of earning money, there is another mistake that people learning English make. Describing a salary as “interesting”. Remember that in British culture we often use understatement and euphemisms, so something negative can be “interesting”.

 

  • How is your new colleague?
  • Umm, interesting.

 

Depending on the tone, we could understand that this new colleague is perhaps a bit weird, the speaker has mixed feelings, they dislike the colleague or really find them to have a lot of interesting things to say.

 

So interesting doesn’t necessarily mean “good”. And just having more money isn’t “interesting” because there’s nothing intriguing about an amount of money in itself. You could buy lots of interesting things but that’s another matter. Instead of “an interesting salary” you should say “a good salary”, or “a higher salary”.

 

So that was the difference between “earn” and “win”. I hope it was useful, and that you have a great winter break!


British Pub Culture and Vocabulary

Posted on December 7, 2018

 

By Emily Stallard, Owner at Orchid English

 

Time for a cultural post about the UK – British pub culture and vocabulary was a request from Vlad who is a learner of English on Google Plus. Thanks Vlad!

 

Did you know that the word “pub” is short for “public house”? In the winter, you can’t beat going to a London pub that has a log fire and sitting in front of it. My favourite winter pub drinks are mulled wine and mulled cider.  A “mulled” drink is something hot with sugar and spices such as cinamon, cloves and nutmeg.

 

What is the minimum age that you can visit a pub?

In order to buy an alcoholic drink in a pub you must be 18 or older. Some pubs ask anyone who they think looks under 25 for ID. If this happens to me I am delighted! Some pubs, especially in the countryside have a children’s play area outside. So you can bring the whole family as long as the children drink soft drinks.

 

Who often visits pubs, men or women?

Both men and women often visit pubs. Historically, some pubs didn’t allow women because the only women in pubs were prostitutes. Interestingly, in the nineteenth century there was a high propotion of female pub landladies despite the fact that they didn’t serve women.

 

Can I bring alcoholic drinks bought in another place to a pub?

No! It’s illegal and the staff would be annoyed that you weren’t paying for anything.

 

What alcoholic drinks can I buy in a pub?

It depends on the pub, you have to go in and see. If you’re new in London you should try ale, which is a traditional drink similar to beer but often with a stronger taste, uncarbonated and served at room temperature.

 

Can I smoke in a pub?

Not since 2007; smokers have to go outside now.

 

Should I leave a tip in a pub?

You can if you like, but you shouldn’t feel obliged. When buying a round of drinks at the bar you can say “and whatever you’re having”, and the bartender will charge you for a drink for themselves too.<

 

If it’s a gastropub, which is a pub that serves good quality meals, you can give the staff an extra 10-12% when you pay for your meal at the end. However, be sure to check on your receipt that the staff haven’t already factored in a service charge, because this is really the same as a tip.

 

Thanks for reading, and I hope that this introduction to British pub culture and vocabulary helps you to take advantage of the great British pub this winter.


How to Make the Most of Your Notes

Posted on December 4, 2018

By Emily Stallard, Owner at Orchid English

 

Do you make notes in your English classes? I’m always amazed by the number of adults who don’t make notes on corrections or new information given by the teacher. If you don’t make notes, the teacher’s advice may be very difficult to recall. After the class, you need to make the most of your notes by reviewing them.

 

Making notes enables you to review what you have done after class and you are less likely to make the same mistake over and over again. The following tips detail how you can improve your English fast by making the most of your notes:

 

Write Notes by Hand

 

There is a lot of evidence that taking notes on a device won’t help you remember the information. In addition to being ineffective, using devices in your class almost always creates some typing noise, and popups on the device are distracting.

 

OK so the first step is to make handwritten notes during the class, but then how do you make the most of your notes between classes?

 

Read Notes Both Silently and Aloud

 

At home, read your notes aloud as well as silently. Often the word feels different to pronounce to how you had expected, especially a long word or a word with a tricky sequence of sounds. And if your objective is to improve your speaking, it will help to familiarise yourself with the feel of the word.

 

Note Down the Pronunciation

 

English doesn’t have as high a correlation between spelling and pronunciation as we may hope when learning it. It’s no good if you know the spelling but not the pronunciation, which makes noting down irregular pronunciation really essential. Otherwise when you return to your notes you will fall into traps with the pronunciation. Learn more about spellings and pronunciation in English here.

 

Are you familiar with the International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA? Lots of advanced speakers of English know the IPA, so they can note down the pronunciation of a new word. To be honest, if you feel that learning the whole IPA is too much, you can get a very long way just learning the vowels, and the two “th” sounds.

 

Do More Research Online

 

When you are presented with a new concept in English, do some more research on it online. When your teacher intruduces the past perfect tense, for example, search for different sources for past perfect quizzes and explanations to really ingrain your understanding.

 

Controlled Practice Writing

 

There are structures that you really want to commit to memory. Say you always hear the phrasal verb “get up to“.

 

  • What did you get up to this weekend?
  • Up? I wasn’t up! What do you mean?

 

You ask your teacher who explains that “get up to” a casual way to say “do”, especially for something interesting or mischievous. Now you realise why people ask you about it all the time, and it’s a useful phrasal verb to be able to use too.

 

Much better than reading about it, make some sentences of your own with this phrasal verb, transforming the tense. Writing lines seems unfashionable these days but I think it can be a good way to ingrain knowledge and use the language actively.

 

  1. What did you get up to on the bank holiday?
  2. It’s so busy at work I haven’t been getting up to much in the evenings recently
  3. Those children look like they’re getting up to no good!
  4. When we were unsupervised, my brothers and I used to get up to a lot of mischief

 

Make your Own Charts and Posters

 

I really enjoy making my own wall charts from my class notes to help me learn Spanish! You can add mnemonics and colours according to your learning style. It doesn’t really matter whether you’re a great artist, what’s important to make the most of your notes is to ingrain the new words or grammar points in your mind.

 

If you have a list of gerunds and infinitives for example, you could design a poster with all the words that trigger the gerund on the left and words that trigger infinitives on the right. If you combine them into a scene you will be more likely to remember them.

 

So in summary we have: reading your handwritten notes silently and aloud; making a note of pronunciations; doing more online research; writing your own practice sentences and making your own charts and posters. Do you have any more tips? How do you make the most of your notes from your English classes? We’d be interested to hear them.


What’s the Difference Between Shade and Shadow?

Posted on November 27, 2018

By Emily Stallard, Owner at Orchid English

 

Are you going away for some winter sun this year? Perhaps skiing or even further away to a warm climate for a few weeks? When I can, I love going somewhere hot for a holiday in the middle of winter. And then I say… “It’s so hot in the sun! Let’s find some…” which? What’s the difference between shade and shadow?

 

What’s the difference between shade and shadow? They are very similar but it can sound unnatural if you use one in place of the other.

 

Shadow is a particular shadow. We have our own shadows in the shape of ourselves, as do buildings and trees.

 

Shade is a more general word. When we look for shade we don’t care what makes the shade. We are just looking for a place out of the sun.

 

As if often the case in English, one is countable (shadow) and the other is uncountable (shade).

 

Now I think about it, consider that Americans call sunglasses “shades”, it’s because they create a general shade for everything that you see. Learn more about interesting American and British language differences here.

 

Something I hear a lot in the summer is people learning English saying “let’s find some shadow”. But this sounds unnatural because it sounds like they are looking for a particular shadow. Much more natural to say “let’s find some shade”.

 

There is some crossover because you could say “Let’s find some shade. How about the shadow of that tree?”

 

The difference between shade and shadow is interesting in English because many other languages don’t differentiate between the two concepts. Does yours?

 

 


Typical Mistake by Spanish and Italian Students: Double Subjects

Posted on November 22, 2018

By Emily Stallard, Owner at Orchid English

 

This is a post for adults learning English whose first language is a Latin one. In our company English classes around London we teach lots of Latin students who work here.

 

Additionally, about 15 years ago I taught English in the pretty Italian city of Naples. I’m learning Spanish at the moment so I have some Spanish friends as well as Spanish students of English. This is a typical mistake by Spanish and Italian students that we teachers hear on a regular basis:

 

  • Does your teacher correct the same mistakes over and over again?
  • Yes, my teacher she always corrects my grammar.

 

Hold on! What’s the mistake here? Let’s look at the reply.

 

Native speakers only use constructions like “my teacher… she” if they get distracted and there is a long pause after the subject. Then it turns out we have to start a new sentence.

 

This is the kind of thing a native speaker might say:

 

  • My teacher… oh, yes, could we have two medium lattes, please? …She explains complicated grammar in a really simple way.

 

So what should you say in the first example sentence? You have to choose a noun or a pronoun, but not both together:

 

  • My teacher always corrects my grammar
  • She always corrects my grammar

 

There is a useful quiz here to test your knowledge and ingrain the habit of using only one subject.

 

Read more about typical mistakes made by Latin students here in our previous posts: How to recognise and avoid using double negatives, and how to say you will pay for someone else.